Archive

Author Archive

What Is Linux File System? Easy Guide

May 7th, 2017 2 comments

What Is Linux File System?

As we’ve talked about Linux on the previous post and we have chosen the best Linux distro already and also we learn how to install Linux not it is the time to dig down and understand Linux from inside and we will start with what we’ve  mentioned on load post which is what is the Linux file system.

If we want to talk about Linux File System we need to talk about it from download level and top level in order to fully understand it

You can check this link for a general overview File System

Down Level Explanation

Linux File System or any other file system is the layer which is under the operating system that handles the positioning of your data on the storage without it the system cannot know which file starts from where and ends where.

We talk about Linux, which supports many filesystems windows. MacOS and many other file systems, you can even download software that can handle a new file system when it comes and deal with it

Linux File System Types

So what are Linux file system types?

When you try to install Linux you will see that in order to install Linux you have to install it on a partition or a disk that is one of the following file systems

Ext, Ext2, Ext3, Ext4, JFS, XFS, btrfs and swap

So what are those file systems that Linux use?

Ext: old one and no longer used due to limitations

Ext2: first Linux file system that allows 2 terabytes of data allowed

Ext3: came from Ext2, but with upgrades. It keeps the backward compatibility and you can upgrade your Ext2 to Ext3 without problems

The only problem about it that the servers use this kind of file system because this file system does not support file recovery  or disk snapshots

Ext4: faster and allow large files with significant speed

It is a very good option for SSD disks and you notice when you try to install any Linux distro it is the default file system that Linux suggests

JFS: old file system made by IBM it has a Good performance for both large and small files and because of its low CPU usage but failed and files corrupted after long time use reports says

XFS: old file system which shows a bad performance with small files and you can’t compare it with Ext versions rich features

Btrfs: made by oracle it is not stable as Ext in some distros but you can say that it is a replacement for it if you have to, it has a good performance

You may notice From the comparison above  that Ext4 is the best Linux File System

 Top Level Explanation

Now you know what file system Linux offers you ok what is inside that system and what is the system structure

You may come from windows background and windows has partitions like C:\ and D:\ and folders and you install the windows on any of those partitions usually C:\

What about Linux File System Hierarchy well it has a different structure than windows. If you navigate to the root partition which is / and see the structure of the Linux File System. Most distros have the same structures like this:

Linux File System Directories

/bin: Where Linux core commands reside like ls, mv

/boot: Where boot loader and boot files are located.

/dev: Where all physical drives are mounted like USBs DVDs.

/etc: Contains configurations for the installed packages.

/home: Where every user will have a personal folder to put his folders with his name like /home/likegeeks.

/lib: Where the libraries of the installed packages located since libraries shared among all packages. Unlike windows, you may find duplicates in different folders.

/media: Here is the external devices like DVDs and USB sticks are mounted and you can access their files from here.

/mnt: Where you mount other things Network locations and some distros you may find your mounted USB or DVD.

/opt: Some optional packages are located here and this is managed by the package manager.

/proc: Because everything on Linux is a file, this folder for processes running on the system and you can access them and see much info about the current processes.

/root: The home folder for the user root.

/sbin: Like /bin but here binaries for root user only.

/tmp: Contains the temporary files are located.

/usr: Where the utilities and files shared between users on Linux.

/var: Where variable data is located, like system logs.

Now you should understand what the Linux file system is.

Different file system lead to different performance so it is very important to know the file system at least a bit

This post was originally published on Like Geeks site here.

Categories: LikeGeeks, Linux Tags: ,

How To Install Linux Step-By-Step

March 18th, 2017 No comments

How To Install Linux? By Video

Before we dig into how to install Linux lets review what We’ve talked about choosing the best Linux distro that fits your need on this post

Best Linux Distro

and hope you choose the one that is suitable for you

If you want to install Linux there are 2 ways to do that

First way is to download the Linux distribution you want and burn it to a DVD or USB stick and boot your machine with it and complete the installation process

The second way is to install it virtually on a virtual machine like VirtualBox or VMware and continue working on your windows or mac system without rebooting so your Linux system will be contained in a window you can minimize it and continue working on your system.

For me I prefer VirtualBox it’s a free and runs fast on my PC than VMware and natively support installing windows Linux mac OS with all versions

Let’s choose any Linux distro and install it using both 2 ways

Ok I’m going to choose Linux mint they call it the mac os of Linux

It is good distro for laptops and desktops for personal use

The version we are going to install is 18.1 “Serena” at the time of writing that article.

Go to this link and download it

https://www.linuxmint.com/download.php

I prefer Cinnamon desktop version it is promising and elegant

Once you download the iso file you will have to burn it on DVD or the easy way copying it on USB stick using a program called universal USB installer from that link

https://www.pendrivelinux.com/universal-usb-installer-easy-as-1-2-3/

After downloading the program open it and choose from the list the distro you want to install in our case Linux mint and make sure you put your memory stick on the computer and click next and wait till copying process is finished.

how to install linux using usb
how to install Linux using USB

how to install linux mint

install linux choose iso

Now Finally we click create to create bootable USB

create bootable usb install linux

And now you can boot with this memory stick

Then Restart you PC and go to BIOS settings  and select boot options and make sure the USB is the first one then it will show the installation screen press Enter it will load the live CD content which is on the USB or DVD

boot linux

install linux boot menu

Then desktop will appear like that

linux boot complete

Click install Linux mint

Then choose the language used for installation

choose language

install third party

Then choose the installation type and TAKE CARE if you are installing Linux on a disk that contains another system you MUST choose the option called something else

delete partitions

But if you installing it on new disk choose the option Erase disk

Linux requires 2 partitions to work on root partition and swap partition

Now we will create them by clicking the plus button and choose about 12 GB or more as you need but not less than that for root partition and choose mount type as / which stands for root and of course format will be Ext4

linux create partitions

Now we create swap partition choose the remaining free space and click the plus button and choose swap area as shown

create root partition

choose free space

Then Create swap area

create swap area

Then click install now and agree about writing changes to disk

click install linux

confirm install

Now you choose the time zone and click continue the choose the language

choose timezone

choose linux language

Now you write your username and password and click continue

choose username

Finally, installation started

linux installlation started

After finishing installation it will prompt you to reboot the machine and remove the installation media DVD or USB

linux installation finished

And yes this is how to install Linux on Physical machine

linux welcome screen

linux start menu

The second way it to install Linux is to install it on VirtualBox First download VirtualBox from here

https://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads

Then install it easy steps then

there are 2 ways to use Linux on VirtualBox

The first way is easy it like the normal installation process

Open VirtualBox and click new and choose Linux and ubuntu 64

linux virtualbox create vm

Then choose the RAM required not less than 1 GB and choose the disk file type or leave it as VDI and dynamically allocated and the size not less than 12 GB and hit ok

linux virtualbox assign ram

linux virtualbox hdd type

linux virtualbox hdd file

linux virtualbox dynamic allocated
Then file location for disk to be used

linux virtualbox hdd size

So now the VirtualBox is created we just need to make it boot from the DVD we’ve downloaded

Choose from settings > Storage and choose the iso image and click ok.

linux virtualbox settings
Then choose the iso image
linux virtualbox boot iso
Then Click start

linux virtualbox start

After loading the desktop click install Linux mint and the rest of the steps are as the mentioned above without any change And this is how to install Linux on a virtual machine.

This post was originally published on Like Geeks site here.

Categories: LikeGeeks, Linux Tags:

Best Linux Distro For 2017 That Fits Your Needs

March 11th, 2017 No comments

What Is The Best Linux Distro For 2017?

So what is the best Linux distro? If you know Linux you may know that there are a lot and a lot of Linux distros out there and you can check most of them from distro watch website

https://distrowatch.com/

 

You may try few of them so what is the difference between them and which one of them suitable for you and what is the best Linux distro?

Well that question needs you to walk around and what other provide and Pros and Cons of everyone but I gather some information from the web about the most used and loved distros that you might use and fit yourself with one of them

I’m going to walk through every one of those distros and you will choose the best Linux distro yourself according to your needs

 

Elementary OS: Elegant Looking and fast speed

best linux distro elementary-os
best Linux distro elementary-os

Elementary OS is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu. It uses Pantheon desktop environment which gives the distro the beautiful looking and lightweight on your PC

So if your concern about the best looking this is the best Linux distro for you

https://elementary.io/

 

Linux Mint: Best Distro for Desktop Computers

best linux distro linux mint

They call this distro Mac OS X of the Linux because it is the best Linux distro for laptops and desktops some people might say they do not prefer it because of the desktop environment which is called Cinnamon But now it is LTS (long term support) and is more stable than ever and developers of that desktop spend a lot of time to make it better than ubuntu so if you are searching about powerful computing this is the best Linux distro that you might need

https://www.linuxmint.com/

 

Tails: Best Distro for Privacy

best linux distro tails os

Nothing beats tails distro in privacy and security because that was the purpose of that distro It’s a Debian-based distribution that gives you privacy

So if your privacy matters this is the best Linux distro you should choose

https://tails.boum.org/

 

CentOS: Best Distro for Servers

best linux distro centos

If you check the servers around the world you will notice that the huge percent of servers uses centos specially and this is because of one very important thing

The famous and cool hosting control panel cPanel runs only on CentOS

And for many people that might let them choose it

So for Servers CentOS is the best distro that you should go with

https://www.centos.org/

 

Arch Linux: Simplicity and Customization

best linux distro arch linux

Arch Linux is the best Linux distro for those who want to learn everything about Linux

Experts categorize this distro as the most customizable Linux distro on the web and with the rich documentation on their website that makes it the best one Geeks

https://www.archlinux.org/

 

Lubuntu and Xubuntu: old hardware compatible

best linux distro lubuntu

If your hardware is a bit old then you might need something light that you can run without problems and Hang

For this sake, there is a lightweight desktop environment like LXDE and XFCE

Lubuntu comes with LXDE and Xubuntu comes with XFCE and both are lightweight

So if the old hardware is your limit these might be the best one that you should try

http://lubuntu.net/

http://xubuntu.org/

 

Steam OS: Linux Gaming

best linux distro steamOS

Many gamers use windows for gaming and if they love Linux they may dual boot with Linux till coming to that distro of Linux which is dedicated for gamers and games so if you are a gamer this is the best one for you

http://store.steampowered.com/steamos/

 

Keep in mind that all the mentioned distros are the best when writing that article, the world is changing everyday who knows what will be the best next? see you then

This post was originally published on Like Geeks site here.

Categories: LikeGeeks, Linux Tags: